What are Motherboard Power Phases and VRMs?

Motherboard Power Phases are a power control technique through which the motherboard provides clean, stable, and consistent power to the CPU and the RAM.

Essentially the power phases of a motherboard are determined by its Voltage Regulator Modules (VRM). If the motherboard has a higher number of VRMs and power, the stability will be higher.

The higher the number of power phases the motherboard has, the more stable the system will run. This is of particular interest to the overclockers.

For this reason, on most of the high-end motherboards featuring the likes of AMD X570 or the Intel Z590/Z690 chipsets, you will notice a high number of VRMs and power phases.

The amount of Power Phases your motherboard has and the quality of voltage control each power phase provides are decided by the amount of Voltage Regulator Modules (VRMs) the motherboard offers and their quality.

Ideally, each VRM on your motherboard corresponds to one power phase. However, some motherboards use VRM doublers to increase the amount of power phases without increasing the TRUE power phases.

A VRM consists of a MOSFET, Choke, and a Capacitor, each with its function.

We will cover all of this in detail below.

To understand motherboard Power Phases and VRMs, let us start by looking at how the power is supplied to the PC.

The Power Supply Unit: 240/120V (AC) – 12V (DC)

The first stage in powering up your PC is the Power Supply Unit.

The PSU takes the voltage from the wall, rated at 240/120V (AC), and then steps it down to 12V (DC).

12V is the required voltage for the motherboard to function. The 24-pin ATX connector connecting the PSU to the motherboard provides the 12V.

how to test motherboard without cpu 2
24-pin power connector for the motherboard and 8-pin power connector for the CPU – both attach to the motherboard. They come from the PSU.

It should go without saying that having a good quality Power Supply Unit is essential for delivering the initial clean and stable 12V to the motherboard and the rest of the connected components like the graphics card, the hard drives, and the hard drives the airflow fans.

Before buying an 80Plus quality control certification on a Power Supply Unit, I recommend you look for it.

Also Read: Why is a Motherboard Important?

What are VRMs – Stepping Down from 12V to CPU Voltage

what is a VRM
VRM is a component found in many electronic devices, including motherboards. It is used to step down and deliver consistent voltage. The better its subcomponents’ quality, the better its voltage consistency. Source Veto Electronics

Now that you know what a Power Supply Unit does, it’s time to get into the woods.

A VRM or Voltage Regulator Module is a component that works between your computer’s motherboard on one side and the CPU and the RAM on the other.

VRMs Step the Voltage Down to Levels Suitable for CPU and RAM

VRMs aims to ensure that the 12 volts from the motherboard are further stepped down to the 1.0 – 1.5 volts typically needed by the CPU and the RAM.

The exact voltage required depends upon the CPU and the RAM model and whether or not you have overclocked it.

Also Read: How to tell if RAM will work with your motherboard?

VRMs Also Regulate the Voltage and Protect the CPU

VRMs do not just step the voltage down. They also regulate it. They ensure that they deliver EXACTLY the voltage the CPU requires, not a millivolt high or low.

They also keep the power levels within acceptable values. They ensure sudden power spikes and dips do not damage the critical components.

You can burn the CPU with high voltages, and low voltages from a poorly made VRM can cause system instabilities and crashes.

VRMs are Often Overlooked

Unlike many other motherboard components, the VRM receives very little attention despite its critical role on a motherboard.

However, a good Phase Power design motherboard is critical for a stable system.

Also Read: What is CPU Throttling?

Where are the VRMs Located?

What are Motherboard Power Phases and VRMs
6 VRMs on the Right for the CPU – 2 VRMs on the Left for the RAM

The VRMs are located somewhere near the CPU and the RAM DIMM slots. The chokes can easily spot them (they can come in varying sizes and shapes).

We will get to what the chokes are a little later.

But essentially, the VRMs are located on your motherboard.

Also Read:

How Many VRMs Does Your Motherboard Have?

There are two ways to figure out how many VRMs your motherboard has.

1. Visual Inspection

The first way to figure it out is using the good old form, a visual inspection.

Manually count the number of chokes you can see next to the CPU socket and the DIMM Slots.

motherboard vrms labelled box phase power design w
This motherboard has a Power Phases/Stage Design of 6+2

The motherboard above has 6 VRMs for the CPU and 2 for the RAM. Hence, this motherboard has a Power Phase design of 6+2.

2. Motherboard Specification Sheet

Another method is to check the motherboard specifications. Often, older motherboards, particularly in the budget range, did not specify the amount of VRMs they had.

Fortunately, most of the newer motherboards highlight the amount of Power Phases they have, which indicates the amount of VRMs they have. motherboard power stages specifications

Power Stages / Power Phases / Phase Power Design is a specification given to indicate the amount of VRMs on a motherboard. Motherboard specifications will tell you the Power Phases in the form of the following numbers:

  • 3+1
  • 4+1
  • 4+2
  • 6+2
  • 8+2

The number preceding the + sign indicates the amount of Power Phases for the CPU. The number after the + sign indicates the Power Phases for the RAM.

Higher-end motherboards have a higher number of Power Phases.

Important Note: Some Motherboards Use VRM Doublers – True Phases vs. Doubled Phases:

There is a difference between True Power Phases and Doubled Power Phases.

TRUE Power Phases are the number of phases supported by the Pulse Width Modulator (Pulse Width Modulator – the controller for VRMs) without using Phase Doublers.

Using Phase Doublers to increase the number of Power Phases of a motherboard is far less efficient than having TRUE Power Phases.

More on this is below.

Also Read: When to Upgrade Motherboard?

So What are Motherboard Power Phases?

Each VRM represents a single power phase (Whether they are a True or a Doubled power phase is another story). A power phase is when a given VRM is turned ON and regulates the voltage.

Therefore, the more VRMs the motherboard has, the more power phases it will have.

With more VRMs, each VRM has to be turned ON for a shorter period to regulate the voltage.

So, for instance, if you have 2 VRMs, each would be turned on for half of the time. With 4 VRMs, each would be turned ON for 1/4 of the time.

VRM and PWM

As the time each VRM has to stay ON decreases, so does the heat generated by each VRM in its ON status.

This, in turn, improves how well the voltage is stabilized, how clean and accurately it is supplied to the CPU, and how well it can perform, particularly when your CPU is overclocked.

Also Read: How to check if CPU is overclocked?

One Caveat Though

The quality of the voltage regulation on the motherboard depends on more than just the number of VRMs and power phases it has.

The VRMs also be constructed with high-quality and high-tolerance materials, mainly because of the heat produced during their operation.

Components of a Motherboard Voltage Regulator Modules and the Power Phases

As mentioned, several components work together to form a single Power Phase of a motherboard.

First, the Pulse Width Modulator is the phase’s prime controller. Then you have the VRMs – the critical components.

Although the composition might differ, the VRM comprises three components MOSFET, Chokes, and Capacitor.

In addition, there can also be Phase Doublers which, as the name suggests, doubles the amount of Power Phases the PWM can support.

And finally, certain high-end motherboards with large and powerful VRMs can have heatsinks.

1. Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) – The Orchestrator

The Pulse Width Modulator is a controller that directs which phase turns on at a given time.

Ideally, each phase has a single VRM circuit. However, if Phase Doublers are used, each stage on a PWM can be branched into two.

The PWM determines the TRUE Power Phases of the motherboard.

A Periodic PWM Signal:

A typical PWM signal has consistent highs and lows. The switching frequency between the high and low for a standard PWM is about 300KHz (300,000 times a second).

PWM Signal
A Typical PWM Signal

When the PWM signal switches ON (High), it sends a signal to the MOSFET of a VRM in the corresponding phase to turn on:

2. The MOSFET (Part of VRM) – Acts Like a Gate

MOSFET ACTUAL

This is short for Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. It is further made of three parts, a gate, a drain, and a source.

MOSFET DIAGRAM

The GATE controls the MOSFET, and the SOURCE is connected to the, well, source of power (PWM in this case). The DRAIN is where the current from the SOURCE flows to when the MOSFET is activated from the GATE – in this case. It flows to the choke (the next component in the VRM).

MOSFET works like a SWITCH, capable of turning on and off when a voltage is supplied or turned off at the GATE.

When the GATE receives a voltage from PWM at its allocated time in the cycle, it allows the power from SOURCE (PWM) to pass to the DRAIN (Choke).

3. The Choke / Inductor (Part of VRM) – Filters the Power

Chokes

This component can be easily spotted on a motherboard as it looks like a metal cube. It is also known as an insulator.

It serves two functions. It can store and filter power. It does a lot to control the overall quality of the power.

Essentially, a choke takes the high-frequency power from the PWM and turns it into a stable 60Hz frequency usable by the CPU and other components.

The quality of a choke dramatically determines how well the motherboard can withstand overclocking.

4. The Capacitors (Part of VRM) – Stores and Filters Power

capacitors on motherboard vrm

This is a standard electrical component used in many electronic devices to store energy in an electric field. It can discharge this energy into its connected circuit when required.

A VRM and its corresponding power phase serve the same purpose. It stores the current received from the choke and supplies just the amount the CPU needs. The rest is discharged or released via the ground.

In supplying the energy to the CPU, the capacitor further filters out any spikes and ripples in the current. Thus smoothing out the quality of the power delivered.

A good VRM will most certainly make use of high-standard and high-quality capacitors. These include capacitors branded as Solid Capacitors, Hi-C Capacitors, etc.

Capacitor vs. Inductors 101

Capacitors store voltage by storing energy in an electric field. Inductors store current by storing energy in a magnetic field.

5. Phase Doublers – Double Power Phases Without Doubling PWM Phases

This is one characteristic usually found on modern motherboards, particularly those that feature top-of-the-line phase power design, i.e., 12+2, 14+2, etc.

The Pulse Width Modulator determines the TRUE number of power phases for your VRMs.

However, when a Phase Doubler is used, you can essentially take a PWM with 4 phases and double it to 8 phases. Motherboards that use this technique specify it on their spec sheets.

Phase Doublers
Gigabyte Z490 AORUS XTREME WATERFORCE has a 16+1 Phase Power Design. However, it uses phase doublers, as indicated here.

The number of VRMs you have will still equal the total amount of power phases on your motherboard. True or Doubled doesn’t matter.

PWM doublers
An introductory look at Phase Doublers

Actual power phase VRM design is superior to doubled-phased VRM design.

A doubled VRM design introduces a switching latency between phases, thus reducing the overall efficiency of a VRM.

Doublers can reduce the overall cost of the motherboard, and in certain situations, they can be worth it. For instance, go for the latter if you must choose between a 4+1 TRUE Phase Power design and an 8+2 DOUBLED Phase Power design.

6. Heat Sinks

VRMs get very hot during operation.

To reduce the negative impacts of high temperatures, such as reduced performance, a heat sink is often used on some of the hotter parts of a VRM.

Bigger and better heatsinks are used on more premium motherboards with large VRMs.

Also Read: What are Front Panel Connectors on Motherboards?

Overclocking and Why VRMs / Power Phases Matter

The amount of VRMs, their size, and the number of power phase your motherboard have do not matter much to the general public.

However, they matter to the enthusiasts, gamers, and professionals who want to overclock.

When you overclock, it directly burdens the VRMs as they now have to regulate a higher voltage. Regulating a higher voltage also generates more heat.

In this situation, everything from the number of phases to the size of the heat sinks and the capacitor’s quality starts to matter.

For this reason, on expensive motherboards, you will notice they have many power phases and VRMs built with premium sub-components capable of withstanding high voltage and current.

You may also notice chokes having large heat sinks for dissipating the heat effectively.

Also Read: What CPU is compatible with my motherboard?

Conclusion

What motherboard Power Phases and VRMs are often asked by overclockers and enthusiasts? This isn’t something that would matter much to an average person.

A motherboard power phase is when a particular VRM turns on. Each VRM corresponds to a single power phase of a motherboard.

The VRMs have the sole purpose of taking the 12 volts from the motherboard and stepping it down 1-1.5 volts, acceptable by the CPU and RAM.

The Power Phases and VRMs work together to regulate the voltage.

If you are an overclocker, you would want to have the best of the components for the VRMs and look for a motherboard with a high amount of power phases.

Also Read: What Makes a Motherboard Good?

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Author:

Ojash
Ojash Yadav is the lead technical writer and resident tech guru at PCGuide101. He is a computer science graduate with over 8 years of experience in the IT field and a wealth of knowledge about computer peripherals. He has a passion for breaking down complex technical concepts and his goal is to make sure that our readers understand the technical details of the products they're interested in without getting lost in jargon. Ojash has over a decade of experience writing about the latest and greatest in the tech world, his articles have been featured in many popular tech publications and he's known for his thorough and unbiased reviews. He conducts extensive research and testing on the latest products to ensure our readers always get the most reliable information possible.

8 thoughts on “What are Motherboard Power Phases and VRMs?”

  1. Man I found this site by accident. I love the depth you go into here, this brings back memories of my teen years and learning EE for the first time.

    Reply
  2. That’s an unusually deep article, great job my dude.

    It seems my Biostar mobo isn’t that good for gaming as they claim, the VRM is overheating (80-90°C) and i came looking to figure out where and what it is so i can properly install a heatsink.

    Reply

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